I want to remove a database's records dating from last year and archive them. I could copy the records to a new table, then delete them from the old table, but the effort would be time-consuming. Does SQL Server have a way to accomplish this task automatically?

SQL Server has no way to automatically archive old data. You can write a stored procedure to do the work. Or if you need to transform the data before archiving it, you can create a customized Data Transformation Services (DTS) task, then schedule the task as a job to run periodically.